Clinical psychologists have education (typically a doctoral degree) and training in the
assessment, diagnosis and treatment of many problems, including those associated with mood, coping, relationships, personality, behaviour, and psychological contributions to pain. Clinical neuropsychologists have further training in brain behaviour relationships, allowing for the assessment and psychological treatment of difficulties in cognition (e.g., memory, attention, language, and executive functioning), mood, personality and behaviour that can arise from developmental factors (e.g., learning disorders); brain trauma (e.g., following industrial or motor vehicle accidents); neurological conditions/disorders (e.g., stroke, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease); psychiatric conditions (e.g., depression) and certain health problems (e.g., chronic pain, diabetes).
Clinical psychologists and neuropsychologists are trained to administer and interpret a wide variety of well-researched tests that provide comprehensive information about mood, personality, coping skills, interpersonal functioning, intellectual skills and other cognitive abilities, learning styles and vocational aptitudes / preferences. The information from these tests can assist in diagnosis and the description of cognitive and psychological strengths and weaknesses in order to identify areas for treatment and remediation. Clinical psychologists and neuropsychologists do not prescribe medications, but use an assortment of evidence-based psychological treatments (e.g., cognitive behavioural therapy; mindfulness meditation; cognitive remediation) to help people improve their lives, manage mood and stress, adapt and adjust to pain, chronic illness and/or cognitive difficulties and maintain psychological well-being.